Tuesday, 29 November 2011

Shririn Ebadi- Mother of Autonomy

The name, 'Shirin Ebadi', evokes shockwaves throughout the likes of western and eastern circles. Her laborious lobbying for some of the most controversial legislations have made her a direct threat to the implications of the Iranian Revolution. Fighting vigorously for the unalienable rights of her fellow citizen, she strives with courage to amend a revolutionary era for the women and children of the Islamic Republic. My recent reading and critique of her memoir, Iran Awakening, has evoked an intimate sense of both apprehension and recognition. She pledges the very prospect that the Iranian overthrow of 1979 served not only a hostile threat to the bureaucratic monarchy, it bred a collective 'political stigma' against the civil rights of women in the Islamic Republic. Ebadi, a judge and lawyer by profession, manifests her faith in her religious affiliation and in her political sentiment. She stands firm on all fronts other women would be view as a death sentence. Ebadi's nomination and winning of the 2003 Nobel Prize for peace further enhanced her reputation as a resilient and enduring 'alpha-female'. Rising against the odds, taking a radically adverse stance towards the controversial and resistant Iranian government. In the eyes of an Intellectual, a mere feminist with a vivid voice, to the philosopher, a conundrum yet to be conquered. But on a personal arena, Ebadi stands as the preeminent representation of a visionary coupled with the invaluable assets of her Islamic facets. The very prospect that a female born into the worst of political circumstances can rise as an inspiration to millions of fellow Iranians seems far-fetched in a world rife with tyrannical regimes ruling their provinces and nations with an iron-fist. In the case of Pre-Islamic Republic Iran, the exploitation of oil wealth and the dispersal of financial assets to the very few, led to it's downfall in the hands of revolutionary freedom-fighters. Doused with all the ingredients for an ideal muslim, feminine visionary; she remains revered locally and abroad. Propagating the plight of women for the most fundamental of civil-rights and provoking outrage in the psyches of her critics analysts. The sheer literary power of her memoir is only realised when one fully digests its flavorsome composition. Fiery with political ideology, superfluous with personal accounts of family and rife with explicit accounts as experiences as a political prisoner. Ebadi has composed a nexus of political and social thought around the span of a mere myriad of pages. When one gazes at her figure, they envision a familiar reality. Plentiful with personal accounts, outspoken and extraverted with political statement. This doesn't go to say Ebadi is a political radicalist nor a religious or theological extremist. Not a democrat, nor a republican she is the faceless, nameless mother of autonomy. The invaluable blessings of independence, freedom and autonomy are well interwoven throughout her very speech, thought and literature. A figure worthy of commendation, of praise and fortitude. As an intellectual with the proud aim of broadening one's personal horizons, one would approach a political statement such as the Iranian overthrow as a mere advantage to the rise in prominence and reverence of modern islamic political ideology. Ebadi is the contradiction, a striking reality check, conveyed through her individuality.

Friday, 25 November 2011

Feminism- An Abridged Paradigm

She stands alluring, magnetic and radiant to her male counterparts, giver of birth and fertility to her family and a mere individual in the eyes of her superiors. She is the female, of an Islamic orientation. A conformist to the west, abiding to the status quo; disregarding the mentality of a visionary and playing a passive and submissive role in a highly competitive bureaucracy. My experiences with the downfall of female enlightenment, the death of open-mindedness and the divorcing of the female from the political and social scenes, have lead to several conjectures, but none of this magnitude. It is the philosophy propagated by schools of thought such as feminism that have made their rather memorable impressions, as bodies of individuals bound under a single banner. But it is this collective attitude that fails to narrow in on the individual and seek the very essence of the single female psyche. The female is more than a biological counterpart, rather a political, social and spiritual statement, attaining a mentality free from the roots of dogma and the senseless conventions preached by the hierarchy. This egalitarian and Utopian approach to women, more specifically those of an Islamic orientation, has been tarnished by the ethos of the west. The status quo, as illuminated by the facets of westernized culture and thought have infested the once flourishing community of Islamic females that took to the stage as it was blazed with the likes of tyrants, oppressors and dictators. She is caught in the midst of adoption, of a very mentality foreign to her faith and ideological values. It it that swift but radical absence of that visionary mentality. The very intellectual capacity to take revolutionary stances on the the political arena, the capacity to function socially while upholding the very tenets central to her faith seems far-fetched where the mentality has been dissolved, professing the embracing of westernism. The concept of conformity lacks any radical harm, but when one abandons the very essence the self and the inner psyche, exchanging it for a bureaucratic ideal, they are worthy of criticism from every front possible. It is critical to note the very evolution of the feminist thought with the advent of the twentieth century, the rise in prominence and regard of figures such as Betty Friedan, with her publication of the famed, The Feminine Mystique, fueled a collective cause, a very spirit, that would alter the perception of the female. But such philosophies promoted by figures such as Friedan lack tangible and intangible substance, leaving the female at bay, with whatever little resources at her disposal. The Islamic faith stands to preserve the individualistic collectivism that feminism has attempted to project to no logical avail. It is the radical propagation of western ideals in conjunction with the rise of colonialist sentiment that has erased the incidence of a female mentality untainted and unadulterated. It is that ever-lasting yearning for that radical 'alpha-female' that embeds within an intellectual that desire to meet her, which her thoughts shape constitutions, her words, like authortitive  commandments upon humanity and her figure, a rigid, flawless paradigm for her faction of society. 

Sunday, 20 November 2011

Narcissists and Citizens- A Social Approach

Being a dignified and law-abiding citizen, I take respective stances on the social scene. Dealing and interacting with individuals of a multitude of ethnicities, faiths and political ideology. But what draws the line between a dignified citizen and a self-indulgent narcissist is the very prowess they exhibit  socially. The narcissist having composed a grandiose portrayal of themselves on the personal platform and on the social front. The citizen having approached every instance with at least a kernel of humility, chastity and modesty. Society thrives with an expansive population growth and a substantial density of individuals. Interaction is indiscriminate; it is a critical facet of citizenship, concerning the likes of the very young and the elderly. From the very instance one leaves the sanctuary of their home or dwelling, they are bombarded with cliché remarks of salutation from their fellow citizen. I, as an individual of rigor and dignity instigate and provoke such mentioning. A gleeful attitude is indicative of a promising and courteous psyche, whereas one exhibiting that of a manipulative and gluttonous gaze is promising of an undesirable encounter. Instigating a conversation starter is one phase, mastering the art of speech and articulation is another. One’s individual dexterity and capacity to compose a logically sound frequency of speech is profound to a colossal extent. The quality and ambiguity of vocabulary is critical, for the selection of individual terms evoke individual emotional and psychological reactions. Citizens that repeatedly apply colloquialism into their social linguistics are prone to immediate rebuttal by their fellow man, whereas one that utilises a strategic arsenal of terminology is endowed with respect and fortitude by their fellow citizen. The narcissist tends to be of a professional orientation, thus their articulation can be dubbed as strategic. The addition of voluntary gestures adds to the momentum and energy of the encounter for the citizen aims and is determined to disseminate their passion and enthusiasm. The narcissist displays his majesty and authority, evoking inferiority in the consciousness mind of the individual that is interacting with him. The citizen strives to conquer common ground and propagate vibes of equality, equity and egalitarianism. These two adverse psyches are the pinnacle of social interaction, a pair of chief classes that consume every member of society. But is it viable to restrict the mechanics of the social scene to physical and emotional facets, while disregarding the fundamentals?  For the sake of simplicity, it becomes affirmative, but when acknowledging the interconnections the facets of the social scene make, one would be foolish to indulge in the elementary to try to achieve a concise observation. This doesn’t go to say that social engagement is a philosophical concept, just as my other conjectures, rather a faction of human nature. The need to interact, share and assimilate ideas is at the cutting edge, rather than a conundrum probed by an eminent figure in modern philosophy. The division between narcissist and citizen emulated in every way, shape and form on the social scene. 

Saturday, 19 November 2011

Hawking- Downfall of an Icon

Provocative, Intriguing, Revolutionary. Such terms correspond to his very psyche, his articulation, his intellectual regard and rigor. As a youngster, I still recall my thirst for his excellence, quenching it with pages upon pages of his work, transcripts of his encounters with the public and his blockbuster publications. The once highly regarded authority in his specialty, Stephen Hawking was the preeminent icon, a down-right representation of the progressive stances within  Theoretical Physics and the seemingly non-existent limitations of human physiology. I quoted, honoured and recalled his ground-breaking remarks and was motivated by his flattering psyche. Hawking has earned a combination of credibility, vilification and criticism for his recent movements. His publication of bestseller popular-science texts such as his famed A Brief History of Time, baffled and provoked positive reception for the multitude of claims made by modern physics. Although confined to the custody of a wheel-chair and the articulation of speech through the aid of a computer as a result of his neurodegenerative disorder, he has earned colleagues and critics probing the debates over some prominent metaphysical and theological conundrums. Hawking professes no belief in the existence or role of God or a divine being in the creation of the universe rather is dependant on the wealth of scientific claims made by his successors and predecessorsThe critically and logically minded surely questions to legitimacy of Hawking’s conjectures in his recent publication, The Grand Design. What drives such individuals of intellectual prestige to reject the faculties of logic and reasoning endowed to them seems far-fetched, particularly for the prospect that such faculties are paramount to their work, study and research. I am not critical of individuals that reject to manifest or profess a belief in a deity as the overlooker and creator of the universe, rather am deeply critical of individuals that maroon their humility and exchange it for an over-inflated ego. Hawking is more than a narcissist, he is a thinker lost in the realm he crafted from his own thought, a philosopher bamboozled by his own philosophy and a voyager on the threshold of the wrong route. It makes one quite queasy, to respect and commemorate a figure that has crafted nearly every facet of his personality, let alone his wisdom, exoteric and esoteric and then eventually scrutinise his mentalityHawking has that twist of panache that is unique in form and function. A persistence that defies the malady endowed upon him. But Hawking holds a shortcoming just as any physicist with a theoretical orientation, the composition of a Unified Field Theory, the very holy grail of popular-science, yet to be conquered. For better or worse, Hawking remains to Theoretical Physics what Homer was to Greek and what Chaucer was to English. A figure of eloquence coupled with a lust for scientific truth, a defiant psyche priming himself to conquer the unconquerable.

Thursday, 17 November 2011

Tablet and Pen- The Thought Nexus

Armed with the conventional ballpoint biro and the traditional leaflets of copy paper, the limitations seem non-existant in a world bombarded with the likes of words flowing across the page at the speed of thought. One can pen the past, through the recollections of the exploits of Lawrence of Arabia, provoke controversy by critically approaching the movements of our superiors and predict turmoil beyond conceivable reach. The invaluable nature of literacy seems far fetched, predominately throughout the west, and ones intimate bending and moulding of the linguistics is limited to a small but dominate group of men. It is the union between tablet and pen that discharges a web, a nexus of ideas forming trillions of indefinite interconnections. This profound approach to modern literacy, indiscriminate of the circumstance, is on the threshold of the intimate understanding of the kinetics of writing. Through writing we can fabricate and concoct a revolutionary realm of nations or reinvent the stigma of the times. From the very moment that nib makes contact with the leaflet, the ink flows freely, guided by the electro-chemical processes of the mind, motioned by the expansion and contraction of the muscular-skeletal framework and provoked by the facets of human psychology. Literary Theory as a specialty, that disregards such tenets; rather focusing on the 'conventional' and 'practical' approach. Writers of the highest eminence, have exhibited this fundamental, either obliviously or sub-consciously. Others have provoked outrage and controversy with absolute disregard. The nexus of thought is critical for the writer assumes only one frame of reference, while an inconceivable chain of postulations dominates the literary landscape he has crafted. His work appears as a multitude of sentences fabricated from mere words bound by the dogma. Yet he is another victim of narrow-mindedness, a dogmatic personality, a mentality that fails to realise that words and their connotations are absoulte and flavoursome. An individual that fails to taste the essence of literature is deserving of criticism and ridicule, especially one that claims to be an esteemed member of the literary community. Words are rations, one must consume and digest without a degree of compromise and produce the maximumly desired effect. We may be on the verge of a new branch of literary theory, but it is the consensus of the literary body to accept and employ the fundamentals we ordain. This brings nostalgia from the days on the academic road, where intellectuals flourished against the odds and founded a new age of intelectual enlightenment. The instance has arrived for linguists, writers and literary academics to build a conceivable comprehension of the nexus, the labyrinth of thought that remains an esoteric principle. While the pen may be mightier than the sword, the sword may indeed exceed the proximity of the nexus, as it has been exhibited in western and eastern arenas. But it is that passion to interject, to contradict, to persuade and entice that has allowed this facet of literacy to prlitherate in a world of dogma and contradiction. It is that flowing of the ink from the pen, the thought from that of the mind and the motivation from that of the consciousness, that is the driving power behind literary power, literally!    

Sunday, 13 November 2011

Sufism- The Pinnacle of Mysticism

Having being a renowned authority in the specialty of Metaphysics, philosopher Frithjof Schuon, dubbed religion as a mere 'adaptation to a particular mentality'. Faith, spanning many fronts, both polytheistic and monotheistic, foresees an evident line of division and partitioning. Whether as a direct result of dispute regarding theological affairs or friction concerning the interpretation of sacred texts and scripts. Sufism is nothing short of predominant, having being fashioned over centuries by the likes of philosophers, theologians and mystics. Often the target of stigmatization, bigotry and prejudice, this denomination seeks the inner with the outer. A sect not concerning the prospect of a political or juristic basis, rather one concerned almost solely with the spirituality interwoven between the created and the creator. It aims to emulate and perserve to commitment to the greater Jihad, a struggle against one's intoxicating passions and illicit desires. It encompasses the very annihilation of the ego, coupled by the life-long destiny to seek an interconnectedness to God, the divine being. It is this faction of the Islamic faith, that intrigues some of the most eminent intellectual and theological authorities in the west and attracts the interest of its fellow muslim counterparts. Sufism reflects the ever-growing tendency to deviate from the heirachy of the religion. In the Islamic sense this stems from the minuscule numbers of Sufis in comparison to the conventional 'mainstream' Islam. It is bent on the love for the creator, a deep and spiritual love in which the Sufis are directed to encountering upon their initiation and their exotic religious journey. The Sufi faction reflects the exponential increase in the incidence of spirituality in the Mystic sense, independence on the theological front and sky-rocketing intolerance exhibited by those whose views and philosophy are bred as a result of narrow-mindedness and bigotry. Such a sect is indicative of the fragility of human spirituality, in the Sufi sense, it is that yearning, that passion and that destiny to seek that metaphysical and spiritual bond with the creator. Having observed the ever-tolerated stigma projected to the Islamic mystics, I sought the truth, immersing myself in literature dating back eras. To broaden one's horizons, one must profoundly loose sight of the land and employ a diverse mentality, one not riddled with the dogma, what is considered 'conventional' and 'mainstream'; rather one that has an ambience of assimilation, the will and desire to produce an output with the input. Sufism may remain a secluded faction in the spectre of the average muslim, but its undying persistence in fulfilling the shortcomings of human spirituality are paramount to a faith that is directed towards submission to the divine will of God. Sufism is analogous to a wayfarer, journeying the wilderness of the desert, yet as his destination approaches him nearer and nearer he tastes the fruits of the vegetation that proliferates  across the seemingly life-less landscape. That destination is God, the wayfarer is the Sufi and the fruits are the mystical means of faith. The Sufis remain here to thrive, honour and commend their movement or resent and vilify their belief, but they as nation, as a people and as a denomination are a resilient set of alpha-males destined to attain the love for God.

Friday, 11 November 2011

Reza Aslan- A Contemporary Intellectual

Often resembling that of a westerner behind dark rimmed spectacles, he stands as one of the most prominent, leading authorities on contemporary Islamic thought. Reza Aslan; scholar, writer and activist is an eminent figure on both the religious and secular fronts. His marriage of traditional wisdom with a modern standpoint makes him a revered intellectual in the world of literature and theological study. Aslan, an Iranian born American, has an expertise and persistance when the tables are turned to concern the likes of god, colonialism, extremism and globalisation. Such a personality is indicative of the changing attitudes towards wisdom and thought, conventional and unconventional in the realm of the Islamic faith. Aslan, having gained no traditional scholarly education or encounter has exploited the havens of the moderist western education. Armed with a doctorate in the sociology of religions, he makes his appearance with desirable expectations, earning him an esteemed status in the middle-east. His quite profound experiences during the Iranian Revolution of 1979, provides first hand view of not only his ancestry but also what his expertise encompasses. The very tenets of history, theology and literature remain deeply encapsulated within his works, including a number of best-seller texts such; No God but God: The Origins, Evolution and Future of Islam; How to Win a Cosmic War: God, Globalization and the End of the War on Terror. Such texts are centered around the changing attitudes towards Islamic Monotheism and the roles that hostility within the middle-east imply for the international community. Aslan is admirable, his pedantic toil in conjunction with a well composed series of objective works places him alongside some of the most esteemed intellectuals in Islamic Thought. His scholarly title, a well deserved honour in exchange for his intimate mastery of historical study spanning many faiths and millennia. It is critical to note Aslan's application of literary dexterity to the propagation of the Islamic philosophy. He has a resilient presence in the media as the figure head of contemporary Islam. Not as a figure shrouded in the attire of traditional thinkers, rather a conformist, to a certain extent, and a fragment of the ever controversial western civilisation. Aslan has served the binding interests of his fellow thinkers, combining literary prowess and capacity with a certain movement of diplomacy. He is the predominate representation of a modernist Islamic, a firm belief in the sure reality, the metaphysical and the absolute on the inside, a resemblance of valour and heroism on the academic front. He is on the treacherous path of winning a cosmic war as his striking and calculated mentality documents every conspiracy, historical affair or theological conundrum. Admirable his persistance and controversial his profound stances, Aslan is more than a modernist thinker, rather a visionary and a radical alpha-male prepared to conquer the academic fronts by any logical, calculated and educated means necessary. 

Sunday, 6 November 2011

John Forbes Nash Jr.- Broken Genius

A figure of intrigue caught in the midst of predicament after predicament. Yet yearns to crack the conundrum teasing the likes of the most eminent figures in the realm of logic, mathematics and computation. John Forbes Nash remained in the public spotlight as a charismatic mathematician, climbing the ever growing ladder of success and recognition, that is on the surface of course. Deep inside this eccentric alpha-male is a bitter battle with the odds, one spanning the course of decades. Currently, this individual has been fixed into my thought, having started his biography by Sylvia Nassar, A Beautiful Mind, I seek Nash from the inside out. His specialty, Game Theory, is at the cutting edge of human rationality on the mathematical level, seeking calculated instances to taste the very fruits of success. This concept made him a pioneer of modern mathematical logic and won him the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994. His breakdown is nothing short of breathtaking, with human rationality on one side the other held a bizarre and radical twist. Firmly, adamant regarding his mathematical wisdom as a revelation from extraterrestrials, he was diagnosed with a mental disorder, Schizophrenia. An ordeal spanning the course of decades, having been committed to the custody of mental institutions. For a man who achieved so much, his tale seems far-fetched, a fabrication to some minds, a mythology to others. Nash is the predominant proof of the mind's shortcomings. His passion for mathematical logic and age old conundrums drove him to discover conventional wisdom for himself, pushing away the literature. The biography first published in 1994, provides an ever revealing insight into his psychology, the mentality that drove him to be what he was and achieve was he aspired. Nash is a figurehead, not of the mathematical or philosophical fronts, but of the mind and the very consciousness encapsulated within it. His disorderly twist often breeds stigma, encouraging perspective to dwell on the psychiatric fronts rather than the computational lanscape he rules, when one thinks John Nash, they think Schizophrenia. The esoteric view is one I personally commend, indiscriminate of the circumstance,; Nash is a visionary, a pioneer with an uncanny twist. A very conservative point in comparison to the near five hundred or so pages of Nassar's biography. What drives individuals like Nassar to document in depth the lives ans times of such individuals still dumbfounds me, in the sense that such eccentric exploits do not fit into the categorisation of 'beautiful' as the title suggests, rather 'subtle' as the lexicon proposes. Nash made his way into this not as a result of his wisdom and flair, rather the intrigue that lies within his psyche, that is what interests me as an Academic.

Friday, 4 November 2011

Classical Music- A Melodic Euphoria

The likes of Mozart, Beethoven, Vivaldi and others remain preeminent. Music, forming a large facet and central tenet to a wealth of nations, their culture and heritage as a whole. It is the age old art art of classical music and composition that many nations found themselves upon. An everlasting realm of provocative tunes and melodies, provoking the spirit and the soul to soar higher than ever.On a personal platform, sensations of intellectual enlightenment, spiritual and metaphysical connectivity and a pure passion to hear beyond what what is being projected. The profound implications of classical music have been shrouded in secrecy with the advent and inception of modernist composers taking to the stage. It is this public and collective attitude that I excessively resent. Nonetheless, my passion for Classical pieces primarily stems from the ecstasy evoked by Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi, my personal favorite being his 1725 composition of four prominent pieces, The Four Seasons. An ingenious application of rhythmic tune and a flawless proportion of repetition produce a substantially intuitive means to follow. Vivaldi's Spring exhibits this the most reputably, with a narrative theme behind the seemingly meaningless provocative melody. In addition, such pieces provide a means of inspirational motivation, with the melody being brewed deeply in the consciousnesses of the listener as he wonders at the architecture of tune and rhythm. This intellectual and emotion reaction remains esoteric with very few individuals possesing an intimate understanding of form and function, thus the piece is not approached in its full capacity. Others take a more vindictive stance, having regarded the melody as a random, meaningless and fruitless ordeal. I thrive on it, consume, digest and ponder its effect. Classical music is arguably the highest stance of human nature, with an illustrious intention in mind, a timeless composition can be bred, inspiring other visionaries to embark on such a meticulous quest of discovery and experimentation. I endorse this personal discovery, spanning many fronts, namely body and mind. A discovery of stimulation, where tune meets reality and the conscious mind is left in awe. If there were a biological basis or underpinning for the comprehension and assimilation of music it would certainly trigger the function of some of the most prominent regions of functional neuroanatomy. It is an ambiance, a very atmosphere where feelings are reflected and embraced, one where the heart pounds beats of passion as a timeless realm is realized. My approach to classical music stems primarily from my intrigue as to the neurological centers and platforms that it stimulates and enlightens, giving rise to voluntary and involuntary reaction. But exactly what reactions provoke  either an excititory or inhibitory effect. As a thinker, the esoteric view is in mind, music is a medium, the cultural equivalence to philosophy, the spiritual equivalence to science. In the long run, Mozart's adolescent orientation in unison with Vivald's methodological compostitons and Beethoven's panache, shall remain deeply encapsulated within the very tune, melody and rhythm.

Tuesday, 1 November 2011

Blogging- A Subculture Demystified

Think an inexpensive means to convey your thoughts both economically and efficiently. One where through the tenuous threads of the world wide web, individuals can collaborate, comment and criticise some of the most anecdotal of statements to some of the most pedantically constructed papers. Blogging is more than a Subculture occupied by individuals that have a passion for information technology, rather a medium indiscriminate of the geographical location or quality of the intellectual rigor. Personally, I have observed blogging a limitless force in which its potential is often overlooked. Through the publishing of articles, critiquing of recent articles and criticism or commendation of current works, blogging is at the forefront of information and communication. On a weekly basis, my role as a blogger stems from my passion to provoke, enlighten and challenge the viewer. To evoke sensations of discovery and pleasure through literature. The production of articles seems the minimal responsibility of a frequent blogger, for their time is invested and centered in thought and interrogation. 'How will my audience interpret my work?'; 'What criticisms may arise?' and 'Am I making a logical and intelligent stance?' are just some of the wealth of questions that inevitably arise in the mind of the blogger. He or She has a personal role to fulfil, specific to their blog and their posts. In conjunction with this, the audience has a role to bring into completion, that is to analyse critically the very notions expressed in the blog and to make judgments based on the quality of the posts and their author. Unfortunately, a large proportion of my posts have been exposed to painstaking thought and experimentation, having fulfiled my role, the audience remains to fill the gaps. Frequently, I receive commendation and praise from my readers, but hardly make any recommendations or comments on how the article may be improved or what logical errors or fallacies I may have made obliviously or knowingly. Moreover, their seems a large proportion of my readers and audience that produce their own blogs to compete with mine, fortunately they haven't made any substantial progress! I would have great pleasure in seeing my followers criticise and comment analytically and post articles that refute my claims. Because a facet of human nature is to object, to refute and to criticise. To rebell and take up arms. Unfortunately, such 'human nature' is not exhibited by the members of my blog and I would like to see more criticism being propagated surrounding my articles. On the flip side, on an international level I have received some positive reception with individuals stretching from as far as the United States, Germany and Indonesia being inspired by my motivational wisdom. Blogging has its rewards both intellectually and socially, its resources produce intellectual superpowers and motivate individuals to ponder further than ever. A subculture of which its capacity breeds generation of scholarly personalities from the simplest of issues and conundrums.